1. Neurosurg Rev. Jul;32(3); discussion doi: /s Epub May The Canon of Medicine (Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb) by Ibn Sina (the illuminated opening of the 4th book). A rare complete copy made in Iran probably at the begin. A historical approach could help in the detection of some viewpoints that cannot be paid attention to or signified by a purely medical one.

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Retrieved 16 August It is possible that the drug acted directly against one disease, and acted against the symptom of the other.

Accessed November 8, The miniatures shown here are the three basic stages of a physician’s visit with a patient: The Qanun is divided into five books parts.

Then, that part which goes to the brain to keep it vital and functioning, becomes colder and wetter, and in its composition the serous softness and phlegm vapor dominate. This page was last edited on 14 Decemberat Water, although cold by nature, will give warmth as long as it is heated; euphorbium, although hot by nature, will have a cold effect when cold; almond, although naturally neutral, will have a strong effect of heat if it turns rancid; and fish, although cold, is a strong source of heat if salt is added to it.

Retrieved 6 September Retrieved from ” https: Bitter taste Excessive thirst Burning cardiac orifice. For this reason, in order to comprehend thoroughly the medicine of Ibn Sina, we must first perform an exhaustive study of the meanings of the medical terms used in the medical literature of the period.

Avicenna begins part one by dividing theoretical medicine and medical practice. Archived from the original on 20 June The Canon then describes when temperaments are unequal, in other words, illness. If we cannot aptly comment on the theories regarding the etymology of illnesses or, in other terms, the “philosophy of medicine”, I believe that it will be impossible to thoroughly comprehend ancient medicine.


Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Canon of Medicine. Ibn Sina drawing by A. National Library of Medicine. Finally, potential substitutes for the substances are given. It consists of four articles. The Canon also adopted the ancient theory of Four Temperaments and extended it to encompass “emotional aspects, mental capacity, moral attitudes, self-awareness, movements and dreams”.

Avicenna added his own comments, highlighting differences between recipes from different sources, and sometimes giving his own recipe.

His Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb Canon of Medicineis gil immense encyclopedia of medical knowledge that embraces anatomy, physiology, pathology and pharmacopoeia. The Evolution Of Modern Medicine. Ibn Sina lived the full active life of a scholar, a busy medical practitioner and even a political advisor and vizier to his patron princes.

The Canon of Medicine

The third — as physicians refer to it — is natural spirit residing in the liver. This expanded theory of four temperaments is given in the following table: Avicenna gibb that the hand, especially the palm and the tip tiibb the index finger, is the most sensitive of all and attuned to tactile contact. The fourth book is on those diseases not restricted to a single part of the body, such as fevers. Medicine in the medieval Islamic world.

He also categorizes these into vital organs and auxiliary organs. William Osler described the Canon as “the most famous medical textbook ever written”, noting that it remained “a medical bible for a longer time than any other work.

That part, which enters the liver to keep its vitality and functions, becomes softer, warmer and sensibly wet, and in its composition the softness of air and vapor of blood dominate. This section describes blood and compares its healthy states with its unhealthy states. If that is not the case, the effect is then accidental, because things that occur naturally are always or mostly consistent. Price realised GBP 20, He contrasts Galen’s view that the brain is the “chief seat of sentient life” with Aristotle’s view that the heart is the source of all the body’s faculties, saying that if physicians considered the matter carefully they would agree with Aristotle that the heart was the ultimate source of all the faculties, even if for example the brain is where the rational faculty manifests itself.


The gums are not full of teeth. International Journal of Cardiology. Galen, Ibn Sina, and Hippocrates, the three authorities on medical theory and practice in a woodcut from an early 15th-century Latin medical book. Highlights from Adventurous Spirit, a private collection sold across two auctions in December and February to benefit a charitable foundation. Further description of youth in regards to heat and moisture is given with respect to sex, geographical location, and occupation.

Medical scholars started to use the Canon in the 13th century, while university courses implemented the text from the 14th century onwards.

What does Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) say on head injuries?

Obviously, Ibn Sina the philosopher has his own views on education. Ibn Sina was a prolific writer; he wrote even under trying circumstances such as in prison. Period of athletic power.

One is brutal spirit residing in the heart and it is the origin of all spirits. Avicenna describes healthy blood as “red in colour, has no unpleasant odour, and has a very sweet taste.

Avicenna suggests that these qualities battle between each other until an equilibrium state is qanum and this state is known as the temperaments. Xavier Fournier xfournier christies. The period of formation of the teeth. As a result, it was said to be one of the most famous medical treatises in Europe, widely used in the universities of Salerno, Montpellier, Bologna and Paris up until the 17th century.