Frank Jackson () formulates the intuition underlying his Jackson, F., , “Epiphenomenal Qualia”, Philosophical Quarterly The knowledge argument is a philosophical thought experiment proposed by Frank Jackson in his article “Epiphenomenal Qualia” () and extended in ” What. Jackson opens his essay with a definition: “It is undeniable that the physical, chemical and biological sciences have provided a great deal of information about .

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But it is not clear that the claim, if correct, would undermine the knowledge argument. She thus has acquired jackxon new concept of phenomenal blueness.

Frank Jackson, Epiphenomenal qualia – PhilPapers

Martha, “who is highly skilled at visualizing an intermediate shade that she has not experienced between pairs of shades epiphenomenap she has experienced One may respond along the following lines: Therefore 3 Not all information is physical information. Lycan’s account of E;iphenomenal epistemic progress can be put, roughly, like this: Examples or partial examples for the first strategy may occasionally be found in the literature compare WarnerGertlerRaymontand Connell She specializes in the neurophysiology of vision and acquires, let us suppose, all the physical information there is to obtain about what goes on when we see ripe tomatoes, or the sky, and use terms like “red”, “blue”, and so on.

FeiglT. Neil Campbell – – Erkenntnis 58 2: First, if Mary does learn something new, it shows that qualia the subjective, qualitative properties of experiences, conceived as wholly independent of behavior jxckson disposition exist.

V3 Explicit formulation of the knowledge argument stronger version: Most cannot help but admit that “new information or knowledge comes her way after confinement,” enough that this view “deserves to be described as epihenomenal received physicalist view of the Knowledge Jwckson.

Two different versions of the No Propositional Knowledge -View have been proposed. An Inconsistency in the Knowledge Argument. There is a possible world where creatures physically identical to us exist but have no conscious mental life.

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Qualia: The Knowledge Argument (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Another doubt about the thought experiment is raised by the claim that a person who is confined to a monochromatic environment but knows everything physical there is to know about visual color experience would be able to figure out what colored things look quaoia and thus would e.


Chalmersmakes a similar point as White using his framework of primary and secondary intensions.

In many of these cases, the idea is not used to argue directly against physicalism, although such a use is arguably present in Broad In that framework, primary intensions describe the way a concept picks out its referent in the actual world and the cognitive independence of phenomenal and physical concepts is explained by their different primary intensions.

Once these two steps are clearly distinguished one may conclude that Marianna’s relevant epistemic progress at t 3 and Mary’s relevant progress after release is not happily described by talk of knowing what it’s like.

Qualia: The Knowledge Argument

javkson The conclusion of the weaker version of the argument is merely an epistemological claim that is compatible with denying the existence of non-physical facts. It is one of the most discussed arguments against physicalism. But he could not possibly know that these changes would be accompanied by the appearance of a smell in general or of the peculiar smell of ammonia in particular, unless someone told him so or he had smelled it for himself.

If the case jacksoon a person with monochromatic vision who turns into a normal perceiver really does involve serious difficulties qulia materialism, then the mere fact if it were one that our visual apparatus excludes the actual existence of such a case does not seem to provide a convincing reply for the materialist. Even if we knew that fact, we still wouldn’t know what it is like to be Fred, although we’d know more about him 2.

We might want to know what color Fred experiences when looking at things that appear to him in that particular way. The What is it Like to Be Argument.

Knowledge argument

The current debate was initiated by Jackson who used the idea to develop a more explicit epiiphenomenal argument, the knowledge argument. This, however, does not yet license any further conclusions about the nature of the experiences that these discursively unlearnable facts are about.

If someone were raised in a stroboscopic room and subsequently ‘cured’ of the akinetopsia, they would not be surprised to discover any new facts about the world they quxlia, in fact, know that objects move. Therefore, it must be conceded that qualia are real properties, since there is a difference between a person who has access to a particular quale and one who does not. It has been argued against Loar that his causal account of how phenomenal concepts manage to directly refer to their referent namely by being triggered by them cannot appropriately describe the particular cognitive role of phenomenal concepts see White and Connell This is more consilient with neuroscience’s understanding of color vision.


Ergo there is more to have than that, and Physicalism is false. It is sometimes pointed out, for example, that merely confining Mary to a monochromatic environment would not epiphenomenwl her from having color experiences jackwon Thompson eplphenomenal, or that, after release, she would not be able to see colors.

The Modal Argument performs the same function against Physicalism.

Some have argued that the phenomenal conceptualization is not expressible in language see Byrne and Hellie We observe the qualia as effects but the real cause of behaviour is not qualia but Brain Events. Nagel’s is different than Jackson’s argument Raymont argues that mnemic, recognitional and imaginative abilities neither separately nor conjointly amount to knowing of what it is like to have a particular kind qualja experience.

He first argues that none of these abilities is necessary and sufficient for knowing what it is like: Epiphenomenla may appear obvious that premise P1 Mary has complete physical knowledge about human color vision implies C1 Mary knows all the physical facts about human color vision.

He argues that jackspn staring at something that looks red to her, she would have knowledge of what it is like to see red, even though she lacks the ability to imagine eepiphenomenal it is like. Balog forthcoming and Papineau argue that the cognitive intimacy to be accounted for is well explained by a quotational theory of jackeon concepts: A final objection to epiphenomenalism: In standard cases, if a subject does not know a given fact in one way that it does know in some other way, this can be explained by two modes of presentation: In both cases cited by Jackson, an epistemic subject A appears to have no access to particular items of knowledge about a subject B: